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What Are the Causes,Symptoms and Treatment of  Vag!nal Infection

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What Are the Causes,Symptoms and Treatment of  Vag!nal Infection

What Are the Causes,Symptoms and Treatment of  Vag!nal Infection

What Are the Causes,Symptoms and Treatment of  Vaginal Infection

Vag!nal Infections


Basic Facts about Vag!nal Infections

  • Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vag!na, often due to vaginal infections that creates discharge, odor, irritation, or itching. It is difficult to diagnose because vaginitis has many causes. Women use a variety of over-the-counter medications to treat itching, discharge, and discomfort of these conditions.

  • The vag!na creates its own environment and maintains a balance between the normal bacteria and the hormonal changes in a woman’s body. Vaginitis occurs when antibiotic, hormonal, contraceptive preparations (oral and topical), douches, vaginal medication, sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, stress, and change in sexual partners.

what Are the Causes,Symptoms and Treatment of  Vaginal Infection -Some vaginal infections are transmitted through sexual contact, but others, such as yeast infections, probably are not. Vaginitis causes inflammation and is often caused by infections, but may be due to hormonal changes (especially when a woman is going through menopause) or due to trauma in young girls. Some infections are associated with more serious diseases.

  • Three types of vaginal infections are the most common. Their causes are quite different, their signs and symptoms are similar, and the treatments of the three conditions vary.

  1. Bacterial vaginosis

  2. Vaginal yeast infection

  3. Trichomoniasis

Many women often mistakenly think they have a “yeast infection” and treat themselves when, in fact, they have a similar vaginal infection that will not respond to self-treatment with over-the-counter yeast medications. A study by the American Sexual Health Association reported that 62 percent of women with bacterial vaginosis for a prior infection.

  • The important thing is not to guess, but to recognize the symptoms if you develop a vaginal infection. If you have any concerns, see your healthcare practitioner for accurate testing and get the most appropriate treatment right away.

What Are the Causes,Symptoms and Treatment of  Vaginal Infection


Symptoms of a Vag!nal Infection?

Vag!nal discharge, itching, and burning are common symptoms of various forms of vaginitis. Although the symptoms of these infections may be very similar, there are some differences in the color and smell of the discharge.


Some vaginal discharge is quite common and normal for women of childbearing age. Normally, cervical tassels produce a clear mucous secretion that drains downward, mixing with bacteria, discarded vaginal cells, and Bartholin’s gland secretions near the opening of the vagina.

These substances can turn the mucus to whitish color, and the discharge turns yellowish when exposed to air. There are times during the menstrual cycle when cervical tassels produce more mucus than others, depending on the amount of estrogen produced. This is normal.

Sexual excitement and emotional stress have both been associated with normal physiologic vaginal discharge. This discharge is frequently clear, and watery in consistency.

If your vag!nal discharge is abnormal in color such as green, has a foul smell, changes consistency, or is significantly increased or decreased in size, you may be developing a form of vaginitis.

  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) causes an abnormal vag!nal discharge with an unpleasant odor. Some women report a strong fishy smell, especially after intercourse. The discharge is usually white or gray, and it can be thin. You may also have a burning urination or itching around the outside of the vagina, or both. Some women with bacterial vaginosis may have no symptoms.

  • Yeast infections or candidiasis can cause a thick, whitish-gray “cottage cheese” type of vag!nal discharge with itching. The itching may be intense. Painful urination and intercourse are also common. A vaginal discharge may not be present. Men with genital candidiasis may have an itchy rash on the penis. Most male partners of women with yeast infection do not experience any symptoms.

  • Trichomoniasis results in a vag!nal discharge that may be yellow-green or gray. The infection can cause itching and irritation of the genitals, burning with urination (sometimes confused with a urinary tract infection), discomfort during intercourse, and a foul odor. Trichomoniasis is sexually-transmitted, and usually occurs within 4-20 days after exposure. They rarely have symptoms, but if they do, they may have a thin, whitish discharge from the penis accompanied by painful or difficult urination.

  • Pain itself is not a common symptom of vag!nal infections (except for the itching) and should not be missed.

  • If you have a condition called vulvodynia, you may have burning, stinging, irritation, or rawness of your genitalia. Vulvodynia is defined by symptoms, and there is frequently no infection or skin disease of vulva or vag!na. You may have intermittent bread, off and on. This is an unusual condition that requires further management with your health care practitioner.



Signs and Symptoms of Vag!nal Discharge

Vaginal discharge may range in color from clear to gray, yellow, greenish, or milky-white and may have an unpleasant odor. The symptoms and character of vag!nal discharge are dependent upon the condition of the discharge.

  1. Bacterial vaginosis

  2. Trichomonas

  3. Gonorrhea

  4. Chlamydia

  5. Vaginal yeast infection

Causes a Vag!nal Infection

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis is caused by a change in the types of bacteria found in the vag!na and causes an overgrowth of organisms such as Gardnerella vaginalis.

  • Risk factors include pregnancy, intrauterine device (IUD) use, and frequent douching. It is associated with sexual activity, and possibly a new sexual partner or multiple sexual partners. Women who have never had sex intercourse are rarely affected.

  • You do not get bacterial vaginosis from toilet seats, bedding, or swimming pools.

  • In the United States, as many as 25% of pregnant women have bacterial vaginosis. This varies by race and ethnicity from 6% in Asians and 9% in whites to 16% in Hispanics and 23% in African Americans.

Vag!nal yeast infections are caused by a fungus, mainly by Candida albicans. This is also called candidiasis, genital candidiasis, or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Yeast infection, mucous membranes, heart valves, esophagus, and other areas. In rare circumstances, it can cause life-threatening systemic infections in people with weakened immune defenses (such as women who are pregnant and people who are HIV positive, have diabetes, or are taking steroids).

  • A majority of adults have had at least one genital infection in their lifetime. Vag!nal yeast infection is not considered a sexually transmitted disease, but it does not stop there.

  • Yeast infections are caused by an overgrowth of normally growing fungi in the vag!na that creates unpleasant symptoms. The yeast is naturally kept under control by naturally occurring bacteria in the body. If the natural balance of microorganisms is disrupted, the yeast grow out of control. It is not clear how fungal infections originate, but they are not thought to be sexually transmitted. Infections tend to happen when an imbalance occurs, caused by any of these events:

  • Use of antibiotics: Antibiotics destroy protective bacteria in the vagina. These bacteria normally stop the candidal organisms from overgrowing. Yeast infection may occur after taking a course of antibiotics.

  • Diabetes or pregnancy: Both diabetes and pregnancy make the vagina better for fungal growth. These conditions lower the glycogen store in certain vaginal cells

    Vaginal Discharge

    They can also increase the risk of infection and increase the risk of yeast infection.

  • Birth control pills: Changes in the vaginal environment with increased hormonal levels of estrogen-containing birth control pills. This change creates an environment for the fungus to grow and cause symptoms.


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o Hormonal changes such as ovulation, menopause, or pregnancy

o Steroid use

o Wearing underwear that is tight or non-cotton: This can increase temperature, moisture, and local irritation.

o Weakened immune system: HIV / AIDS, for example

o Use of showers, perfumed feminine hygiene sprays

o Scratches in the vagina (during insertion of a tampon or other objects)

  • Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (also called trich, pronounced “trick”) caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis is primarily an infection of the urinary and genital tract. For women, the vagina is the most common site of infection. For men, the urethra is most commonly affected.

Other causes of vaginal inflammation may be allergies to spermicides, vaginal hygiene products, and detergents and fabric softeners. Another type of sexually transmitted disease may be present. Older women may experience atrophic vaginitis (a thinning of the vaginal walls with menopause). Foreign objects such as a vaginal irritation may cause vaginal irritation.

If I Think I Have a Vaginal Infection ,When Should I Call My Doctor ?

You should seek medical care any time if you have bread. Although vaginal infections can cause unpleasant itching, they should not cause pain.

If you have a history of vaginal yeast infection, or if you are unsure if you have a yeast infection or another type of vaginal infection. (If you think you have a yeast infection, you can treat yourself with over-the-counter medications.) If your symptoms are not over-the-counter-medications, you may not be infected. should see your doctor.

Vaginal yeast infections, although uncomfortable, are usually not life-threatening. You should see your healthcare professional if you have any of the following:


  • Foul-smelling or yellow vaginal discharge

  • Any stomach or back pain

  • Vomiting or fevers

  • If symptoms return within two months

  • Other pelvic conditions with symptoms similar to vaginal yeast infections need to be checked by a health care practitioner in a hospital emergency department. Seek medical care if the following conditions develop:

o vaginal discharge associated with fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain or if you have a vaginal discharge accompanied by vaginal bleeding that is not a normal menstrual period, you may go to a hospital’s emergency department.

Symptoms not seen in three days, a large amount of vaginal discharge is seen, or if initial symptoms worsen.

o greenish or large amounts of discharge or fever.

o yellow skin, yellow eyes (white part is yellow), pale gold stools.

o discrete lesions or rash develop elsewhere (tender, red, or pus-filled bumps, which can spread to the thighs and anus).

o dizziness.



How Is Vag!nal Infection Diagnosed?

Your health care practitioner will review your symptoms and perform a physical exam. Urine tests and samples of any discharge will likely be done.

  • You may be asked questions including the following:

  • When did this condition begin? Has the discharge been the same throughout the month?

  • What does the discharge look like? What is its color and consistency? Is there an odor?

  • Do you have bread, itching, or burning?

  • Does your sexual partner have sex with you?

  • How many sexual partners do you have?

  • Do you use condoms?

  • What helps relieve the discharge? Do you take baths? Have you tried over-the-counter medications? Douching?

  • What other symptoms do you have?

  • What medications do you take for all conditions?

  • Have you changed detergents or soaps recently?


  • Do you often wear tight underwear or pants / jeans?

  • During the pelvic examination, the doctor will inspect your vagina and cervix for any discharge orions. The doctor will determine the size and location of the uterus and cervix. The doctor will assess whether or not you have the tendency to move the cervix and uterus, or in the areas next to the uterus, which corresponds to the Fallopian tubes and ovaries.

  • During the vaginal examination, a speculum is introduced into the vagina to see the cervix. Whether it is fungal (yeast), protozoan (trichomoniasis), or bacterial (bacterial vaginosis). Your health care provider may examine a sample of vaginal discharge under a microscope to detect the presence of the organism associated with vaginal infections.

  • In some cases, a Pap test will be performed to exclude the possibility of cervical cancer. This test is sent to the laboratory, and results are usually obtained within one week.

  • Newer DNA-based tests are quite accurate for vaginal diagnosis of infections.

  • A colposcopy or biopsy might be recommended if your cervix appears abnormal. Colposcopy uses a lighted microscope to get a magnified view of the surface of the cervix. In a biopsy, a tissue sample is taken for testing.

  • Certain blood tests can detect antibodies to the yeast-infection causing Candida albicans. This test is not very reliable for vaginal infections and is only useful in people who have an infection that affects their whole body.

  • Trichomonas is present, and confirmed by laboratory tests, your doctor can do more for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

If you are diagnosed with vaginitis, keep your genital area clean and dry. Do not shower or use feminine hygiene sprays or powders while being treated. Do not have sexual relations while being treated. After the visit with your physician, abstain from sexual intercourse until treatment is completed and symptoms subside.

Treatment of Vaginal Infections

Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of your urine tests and, occasionally, vaginal cultures (samples sent to the lab). Treatment is based on the organism causing the infection. Depending on the vaginal suppositories, antifungal pills, or antibiotics (as pills or an injection). You may also be interested in the treatment of vaginal infections, the severity of infection, the duration of infection, the recurrence of infection, and whether you are pregnant.

Follow up with your doctor for your cervical lab tests and Pap test. It is recommended that you have a complete physical examination every year, whether or not you are experiencing any symptoms.

What Over-The-Counter (OTC) Medications or Home Remedies Vag!nal Infections?

Bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis will not go away with home care or over-the-counter medications. They require antibiotics. You must see your healthcare professional for diagnosis and treatment.

Only yeast infections can respond to over-the-counter medications. If you have never had a complaint and are thinking about it, it is important that your health care provider agrees with this diagnosis before any technical or over-the-counter medications. Generally, the first incidence of infection should be treated by your health care provider.

  • After the first infection, it has a second infection and it is certain that it is a yeast infection, such as miconazole (brand name Monistat and others), an antifungal vaginal medication.

  • Because over-the-counter treatments have become available, many women are diagnosed with a yeast infection, when, in fact, about two-thirds of all of them have been used. . Using these drugs when they are not needed can lead to a resistant infection. Resistant infections are very difficult to treat with the currently available medications. If in doubt, consult your healthcare professional.

  • Many current over-the-counter medications are available for mild cases of yeast infection. The cure rates with the nonprescription drugs are about 75% -90%.

  • The medications are sold as vag!nal suppositories or creams. They are inserted into the vag!na with a plunger-type applicator and are usually used for every day. Stronger doses are given over one to three days only. Most women can treat yeast infections at home with these medications:


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o miconazole (Monistat-7, M-Zole)

o tioconazole (Vagistat Vag!nal)

o Butoconazole (Femstat)

o Clotrimazole (Femizole-7, Gyne-Lotrimin)

  • Massage these remedies into your vagina and surrounding tissues or insert the suppository form into your vagina, depending on the formulation and instructions. If irritation occurs in the area, discontinue the medication immediately.

  • If you are pregnant, consult your doctor before using these treatments.

  • If symptoms continue for more than one week, consult your doctor. You may have severe yeast infection or other problems that mimic a yeast infection.

  • Home care techniques have been used for many years.



o Vinegar showers: While many women use these techniques to clean themselves after menstrual periods or sexual intercourse. The vagna is made to cleanse itself. Douching may disrupt the healthy bacteria lining the vagina.

By attempting to treat an abnormal vag!nal discharge with douching, you might actually worsen the condition.

Do not shower without your health care provider’s knowledge when you have an abnormal discharge, and do not shower for 24 hours prior to seeing the doctor.


o Eating yogurt that contains live acidophilus cultures (or eating acidophilids): Yogurt acts as a medium for certain good bacteria to thrive.

Despite popular belief, studies on the benefits of eating yogurt with lactobacillus acidophilus cultures have a way to prevent yeast infection have yielded conflicting results. The scientific benefit of consuming yogurt cultures has not yet been proven.

o Antihistamines or topical anesthetics (numbing medications) that only mask the symptoms and do not treat the underlying problem.

What Antibiotics Treat Vag!nal Infections

Bacterial vaginosis: Your medical professional may treat you with antibiotics such as metronidazole (Flagyl) or clindamycin (Cleocin). Generally, male sex partners are not treated. Many women with symptoms of bacterial vaginosis do not seek medical treatment, and many women without symptoms. This condition can resolve spontaneously in one of the third cases in non-pregnant patients and up to half in pregnant patients.

Yeast infection: If this is the first time you have had a yeast infection, a doctor should be consulted about it or over-the-counter products. Your doctor will usually recommend that you use vaginal creams and vaginal applications rather than oral medication. Pregnant women usually will be treated more often than not.

Severe infections need antifungal medication, which is usually taken orally as a single dose. This could include fluconazole (Diflucan) and itraconazole (Sporanox). These drugs have a cure rate of greater than 80%. These medications can also be given for three to five days with similar cure rates.

The medications might cause liver problems. Some of the symptoms of liver dysfunction include yellow skin, yellow eyes, and pale stools. If you have any of these signs, contact your doctor right away. Your doctor will probably advise you to stop the medication immediately, perform your blood tests, and monitor your liver functions.

  • For less severe infections, medications can be used as a vag!nal tablet or cream applicator. One example is nystatin (Mycostatin), with a cure rate of about 75% -80%. Miconazole (Monistat-7, M-Zole) and clotrimazole (Mycelex, Gyne-Lotrimin) have a cure rate of about 85% -90%.

  • In some cases, a single dose of medication has been shown to clear up yeast infections. In other cases, may be prescribed.

  • For recurrent infection (more than four episodes per year), oral fluconazole and itraconazole or vaginal clotrimazole might be needed for six months.

  • In pregnant women, a longer course of treatment is needed. It is very important to consult with your doctor before treatment.

Trichomoniasis: Trichomoniasis is treated with metronidazole. It is usually given in a single dose. If you take this drug, you can not drink alcohol because of the two substances that can cause severe nausea and vomiting. Both sex partners are treated with the same medicine if they do not have signs of the disease.

Can Douching Cure Vag!nal Infections?

  • Because the bacterial balance of the vagina is very sensitive, it is best to let the vagina clean itself. The vagina takes care of cleaning itself naturally through secretions of mucus. Warm water and gentle, unscented soap during the bath or shower is the best way to clean the outside areas of the vagina. Products like feminine hygiene soaps, powders and sprays are not necessary, and they may be harmful.

  • Douching refers to rinsing or cleaning up the vag!na by squirting water or other solutions (such as vinegar, baking soda, or douching solutions in the vag!na. The water or solutions are held in a tube and squirted into the vagina through tubing and a nozzle. Although douching is a common practice among the United States, health care providers do not recommend douching to clean the vagina. Douching changes in the vagina, which can make you more likely to develop a vaginal infection. Research shows that women who shower regularly tend to have more vaginal infections than women who do not shower or who rarely shower.

How To Prevent Vaginal Infection?

  • The best ways to prevent bacterial vaginosis are not known. However, it is known that the bacterial vaginosis is associated with having a sex partner or having multiple sex partners. It is seldom found in women who have never had intercourse. Basic prevention would include using condoms, limiting the number of sex partners, abstaining from douching, and using the prescribed medicine for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, even if the symptoms go away.

  • In most cases, vag!nal yeast infections can be easily prevented.

o Keep your vag!nal area dry, especially after a shower.

o Wipe from front to back after using the toilet.

o Switch to looser-fitting cotton underwear.

o Change wet bathing suits after a swim.

o Avoid tight-fitting jeans or pantyhose.

o If pregnant, report the onset of new symptoms to a physician immediately.

o Avoid chemical irritants in deodorized buffers. Do not use showers gold feminine hygiene products. Regular bathing is usually adequate to cleanse the vagina.

  • Trichomoniasis can be prevented. If you are diagnosed with a trichomonal infection, your sex partner should also be checked. He may be sexually transmitted and may be infected. Safe sex with condoms and sexually transmitted diseases are in order.

What Is the Prognosis for Vag!nal Infection

If diagnosed and treated correctly, all forms of vaginitis usually respond to therapy. Your symptoms will clear up and go away. If your symptoms do not resolve or the symptoms return, you need to be reevaluated by your healthcare professional.

  • Bacterial vaginosis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which causes infertility and tubal (ectopic) pregnancy. Bacterial vaginosis can also cause problems with pregnancy and premature delivery and low-birth-weight infants.Your health care provider will be monitoring your condition closely if you are pregnant and have a prior premature birth. Bacterial vaginosis may also cause increased risk of gonorrhea and HIV infection.

  • Trichomoniasis is associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV.


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